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Rxivist combines preprints from bioRxiv with data from Twitter to help you find the papers being discussed in your field. Currently indexing 55,041 bioRxiv papers from 254,018 authors.

Most downloaded bioRxiv papers, since beginning of last month

51,421 results found. For more information, click each entry to expand.

1: An integrated brain-machine interface platform with thousands of channels
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Posted to bioRxiv 17 Jul 2019

An integrated brain-machine interface platform with thousands of channels
22,564 downloads neuroscience

Elon Musk, Neuralink

Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) hold promise for the restoration of sensory and motor function and the treatment of neurological disorders, but clinical BMIs have not yet been widely adopted, in part because modest channel counts have limited their potential. In this white paper, we describe Neuralink's first steps toward a scalable high-bandwidth BMI system. We have built arrays of small and flexible electrode "threads", with as many as 3,072 electrodes per array distributed across 96 threads. We have also built a neurosurgical robot capable of inserting six threads (192 electrodes) per minute. Each thread can be individually inserted into the brain with micron precision for avoidance of surface vasculature and targeting specific brain regions. The electrode array is packaged into a small implantable device that contains custom chips for low-power on-board amplification and digitization: the package for 3,072 channels occupies less than (23 x 18.5 x 2) mm3. A single USB-C cable provides full-bandwidth data streaming from the device, recording from all channels simultaneously. This system has achieved a spiking yield of up to 85.5% in chronically implanted electrodes. Neuralink's approach to BMI has unprecedented packaging density and scalability in a clinically relevant package.

2: Report of Partial findings from the National Toxicology Program Carcinogenesis Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation in Hsd: Sprague Dawley® SD rats (Whole Body Exposure)
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Posted to bioRxiv 26 May 2016

Report of Partial findings from the National Toxicology Program Carcinogenesis Studies of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Radiation in Hsd: Sprague Dawley® SD rats (Whole Body Exposure)
2,774 downloads cancer biology

Michael Wyde, Mark Cesta, Chad Blystone, Susan Elmore, Paul Foster, Michelle Hooth, Grace Kissling, David Malarkey, Robert Sills, Matthew Stout, Nigel Walker, Kristine Witt, Mary Wolfe, John Bucher

The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) has carried out extensive rodent toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) at frequencies and modulations used in the U.S. telecommunications industry. This report presents partial findings from these studies. The occurrences of two tumor types in male Harlan Sprague Dawley rats exposed to RFR, malignant gliomas in the brain and schwannomas of the heart, were considered of particular interest and are the subject of this report. The findings in this report were reviewed by expert peer reviewers selected by the NTP and National Institutes of Health (NIH). These reviews and responses to comments are included as appendices to this report, and revisions to the current document have incorporated and addressed these comments. When the studies are completed, they will undergo additional peer review before publication in full as part of the NTP's Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Technical Reports Series. No portion of this work has been submitted for publication in a scientific journal. Supplemental information in the form of four additional manuscripts has or will soon be submitted for publication. These manuscripts describe in detail the designs and performance of the RFR exposure system, the dosimetry of RFR exposures in rats and mice, the results to a series of pilot studies establishing the ability of the animals to thermoregulate during RFR exposures, and studies of DNA damage. (1) Capstick M, Kuster N, Kuhn S, Berdinas-Torres V, Wilson P, Ladbury J, Koepke G, McCormick D, Gauger J, and Melnick R. A radio frequency radiation reverberation chamber exposure system for rodents; (2) Yijian G, Capstick M, McCormick D, Gauger J, Horn T, Wilson P, Melnick RL, and Kuster N. Life time dosimetric assessment for mice and rats exposed to cell phone radiation; (3) Wyde ME, Horn TL, Capstick M, Ladbury J, Koepke G, Wilson P, Stout MD, Kuster N, Melnick R, Bucher JR, and McCormick D. Pilot studies of the National Toxicology Program's cell phone radiofrequency radiation reverberation chamber exposure system; (4) Smith-Roe SL, Wyde ME, Stout MD, Winters J, Hobbs CA, Shepard KG, Green A, Kissling GE, Tice RR, Bucher JR, and Witt KL. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of cell phone radiofrequency radiation in male and female rats and mice following subchronic exposure.

3: Toxicity of JUUL Fluids and Aerosols Correlates Strongly with Nicotine and Some Flavor Chemical Concentrations
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Posted to bioRxiv 09 Dec 2018

Toxicity of JUUL Fluids and Aerosols Correlates Strongly with Nicotine and Some Flavor Chemical Concentrations
2,179 downloads pharmacology and toxicology

Esther Omaiye, Kevin J McWhirter, Wentai Luo, James F Pankow, Prue Talbot

While JUUL electronic cigarettes (ECs) have captured the majority of the EC market with a large fraction of their sales going to adolescents, little is known about their cytotoxicity and potential effects on health. The purpose of this study was to determine flavor chemical and nicotine concentrations in the eight currently marketed pre-filled JUUL EC cartridges (pods) and to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the different variants (e.g., Cool Mint and Creme Brulee) using in vitro assays. Nicotine and flavor chemicals were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in pod fluid before and after vaping and in the corresponding aerosols. 59 flavor chemicals were identified in JUUL pod fluids, and three were >1 mg/mL. Duplicate pods were similar in flavor chemical composition and concentration. Nicotine concentrations (average 60.9 mg/mL) were significantly higher than any EC products we have analyzed previously. Transfer efficiency of individual flavor chemicals that were >1mg/mL and nicotine from the pod fluid into aerosols was generally 35 - 80%. All pod fluids were cytotoxic at a 1:10 dilution (10%) in the MTT and neutral red uptake assays when tested with BEAS-2B lung epithelial cells. Most aerosols were cytotoxic in these assays at concentrations >1%. The cytotoxicity of aerosols was highly correlated with nicotine and ethyl maltol concentrations and moderately to weakly correlated with total flavor chemical concentration and menthol concentration. Our study demonstrates that: (1) some JUUL flavor pods have high concentrations of flavor chemicals that may make them attractive to youth, and (2) the concentrations of nicotine and some flavor chemicals (e.g. ethyl maltol) are high enough to be cytotoxic in acute in vitro assays, emphasizing the need to determine if JUUL products will lead to adverse health effects with chronic use.

4: Aequorea victoria’s secrets
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Posted to bioRxiv 19 Jun 2019

Aequorea victoria’s secrets
2,118 downloads biochemistry

Talley Lambert, Hadrien Depernet, Guillaume Gotthard, Darrin T Schultz, lsabelle Navizet

Using mRNA-Seq and de novo transcriptome assembly, we identified, cloned and characterized nine previously undiscovered fluorescent protein (FP) homologs from Aequorea victoria and a related Aequorea species, with most sequences highly divergent from avGFP. Among these FPs are the brightest GFP homolog yet characterized and a reversibly photochromic FP that responds to UV and blue light. Beyond green emitters, Aequorea species express purple- and blue-pigmented chromoproteins (CPs) with absorbances ranging from green to far-red, including two that are photoconvertible. X-ray crystallography revealed that Aequorea CPs contain a chemically novel chromophore with an unexpected crosslink to the main polypeptide chain. Because of the unique attributes of several of these newly discovered FPs, we expect that Aequorea will, once again, give rise to an entirely new generation of useful probes for bioimaging and biosensing.

5: Chromatinization of Escherichia coli with archaeal histones
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Posted to bioRxiv 04 Jun 2019

Chromatinization of Escherichia coli with archaeal histones
2,039 downloads systems biology

Maria Rojec, Antoine Hocher, Matthias Merkenschlager, Tobias Warnecke

Nucleosomes restrict DNA accessibility throughout eukaryotic genomes, with repercussions for replication, transcription, and other DNA-templated processes. How this globally restrictive organization emerged from a presumably more open ancestral state remains poorly understood. Here, to better understand the challenges associated with establishing globally restrictive chromatin, we express histones in a naïve bacterial system that has not evolved to deal with nucleosomal structures: Escherichia coli . We find that histone proteins from the archaeon Methanothermus fervidus assemble on the E. coli chromosome in vivo and protect DNA from micrococcal nuclease digestion, allowing us to map binding footprints genome-wide. We provide evidence that nucleosome occupancy along the E. coli genome tracks intrinsic sequence preferences but is disturbed by ongoing transcription and replication. Notably, we show that higher nucleosome occupancy at promoters and across gene bodies is associated with lower transcript levels, consistent with local repressive effects. Surprisingly, however, this sudden enforced chromatinization has only mild repercussions for growth, suggesting that histones can become established as ubiquitous chromatin proteins without interfering critically with key DNA-templated processes. Our results have implications for the evolvability of transcriptional ground states and highlight chromatinization by archaeal histones as a potential avenue for controlling genome accessibility in synthetic prokaryotic systems.

6: Genome-wide Variants of Eurasian Facial Shape Differentiation and a prospective model of DNA based Face Prediction
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Posted to bioRxiv 10 Jul 2016

Genome-wide Variants of Eurasian Facial Shape Differentiation and a prospective model of DNA based Face Prediction
1,962 downloads genetics

Lu Qiao, Yajun Yang, Pengcheng Fu, Sile Hu, Hang Zhou, Jingze Tan, Yan Lu, Haiyi Lou, Dongsheng Lu, Sijie Wu, Jing Guo, Shouneng Peng, Li Jin, Yaqun Guan, Sijia Wang, Shuhua Xu, Kun Tang

It is a long standing question as to which genes define the characteristic facial features among different ethnic groups. In this study, we use Uyghurs, an ancient admixed population to query the genetic bases why Europeans and Han Chinese look different. Facial traits were analyzed based on high-dense 3D facial images; numerous biometric spaces were examined for divergent facial features between European and Han Chinese, ranging from inter-landmark distances to dense shape geometrics. Genome-wide association analyses were conducted on a discovery panel of Uyghurs. Six significant loci were identified four of which, rs1868752, rs118078182, rs60159418 at or near UBASH3B, COL23A1, PCDH7 and rs17868256 were replicated in independent cohorts of Uyghurs or Southern Han Chinese. A prospective model was also developed to predict 3D faces based on top GWAS signals, and tested in hypothetic forensic scenarios.

7: Genome-wide Variants of Eurasian Facial Shape Differentiation and a prospective model of DNA based Face Prediction
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Posted to bioRxiv 15 Sep 2017

Genome-wide Variants of Eurasian Facial Shape Differentiation and a prospective model of DNA based Face Prediction
1,782 downloads genetics

Lu Qiao, Yajun Yang, Pengcheng Fu, Sile Hu, Hang Zhou, Shouneng Peng, Jingze Tan, Yan Lu, Haiyi Lou, Dongsheng Lu, Sijie Wu, Jing Guo, Li Jin, Yaqun Guan, Sijia Wang, Shuhua Xu, Kun Tang

It is a long standing question as to which genes define the characteristic facial features among different ethnic groups. In this study, we use Uyghurs, an ancient admixed population to query the genetic bases why Europeans and Han Chinese look different. Facial traits were analyzed based on high-dense 3D facial images; numerous biometric spaces were examined for divergent facial features between European and Han Chinese, ranging from inter-landmark distances to dense shape geometrics. Genome-wide association analyses were conducted on a discovery panel of Uyghurs. Six significant loci were identified four of which, rs1868752, rs118078182, rs60159418 at or near UBASH3B, COL23A1, PCDH7 and rs17868256 were replicated in independent cohorts of Uyghurs or Southern Han Chinese. A prospective model was also developed to predict 3D faces based on top GWAS signals, and tested in hypothetic forensic scenarios.

8: A guide to performing Polygenic Risk Score analyses
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Posted to bioRxiv 14 Sep 2018

A guide to performing Polygenic Risk Score analyses
1,756 downloads genomics

Shing Wan Choi, Timothy Mak, Paul F O'Reilly

The application of polygenic risk scores (PRS) has become routine in genetic epidemiological studies. Among a range of applications, PRS are commonly used to assess shared aetiology among different phenotypes and to evaluate the predictive power of genetic data, while they are also now being exploited as part of study design, in which experiments are performed on individuals, or their biological samples (eg. tissues, cells), at the tails of the PRS distribution and contrasted. As GWAS sample sizes increase and PRS become more powerful, they are also set to play a key role in personalised medicine. Despite their growing application and importance, there are limited guidelines for performing PRS analyses, which can lead to inconsistency between studies and misinterpretation of results. Here we provide detailed guidelines for performing polygenic risk score analyses relevant to different methods for their calculation, outlining standard quality control steps and offering recommendations for best-practice. We also discuss different methods for the calculation of PRS, common misconceptions regarding the interpretation of results and future challenges.

9: A Single Cell Transcriptomic Atlas Characterizes Aging Tissues in the Mouse
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Posted to bioRxiv 08 Jun 2019

A Single Cell Transcriptomic Atlas Characterizes Aging Tissues in the Mouse
1,603 downloads cell biology

The Tabula Muris Consortium, Angela Oliveira Pisco, Nicholas Schaum, Aaron McGeever, Jim Karkanias, Norma F. Neff, Spyros Darmanis, Tony Wyss-Coray, Stephen R. Quake

Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of physiological integrity, leading to impaired function and increased vulnerability to death. Despite rapid advances over recent years, many of the molecular and cellular processes which underlie progressive loss of healthy physiology are poorly understood. To gain a better insight into these processes we have created a single cell transcriptomic atlas across the life span of Mus musculus which includes data from 18 tissues and organs. We discovered cell-specific changes occurring across multiple cell types and organs, as well as age related changes in the cellular composition of different organs. Using single-cell transcriptomic data we were able to assess cell type specific manifestations of different hallmarks of aging, such as senescence, changes in the activity of metabolic pathways, depletion of stem-cell populations, genomic instability and the role of inflammation as well as other changes in the organism's immune system. This Tabula Muris Senis provides a wealth of new molecular information about how the most significant hallmarks of aging are reflected in a broad range of tissues and cell types.

10: Characterizing the temporal dynamics of gene expression in single cells with sci-fate
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Posted to bioRxiv 11 Jun 2019

Characterizing the temporal dynamics of gene expression in single cells with sci-fate
1,517 downloads genomics

Junyue Cao, Wei Zhou, Frank Steemers, Cole Trapnell, Jay Shendure

Gene expression is a dynamic process on multiple scales, e.g. the cell cycle, response to stimuli, normal differentiation and development, etc. However, nearly all techniques for profiling gene expression in single cells fail to directly capture these temporal dynamics, which limits the scope of biology that can be effectively investigated. Towards addressing this, we developed sci-fate, a new technique that combines S4U labeling of newly synthesized mRNA with single cell combinatorial indexing (sci-), in order to concurrently profile the whole and newly synthesized transcriptome in each of many single cells. As a proof-of-concept, we applied sci-fate to a model system of cortisol response and characterized expression dynamics in over 6,000 single cells. From these data, we quantify the dynamics of the cell cycle and glucocorticoid receptor activation, while also exploring their intersection. We furthermore use these data to develop a framework for inferring the distribution of cell state transitions. We anticipate sci-fate may be broadly applicable to quantitatively characterize transcriptional dynamics in diverse systems.

11: Comprehensive integration of single cell data
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Posted to bioRxiv 02 Nov 2018

Comprehensive integration of single cell data
1,419 downloads genomics

Tim Stuart, Andrew Butler, Paul Hoffman, Christoph Hafemeister, Efthymia Papalexi, William M. Mauck, Marlon Stoeckius, Peter Smibert, Rahul Satija

Single cell transcriptomics (scRNA-seq) has transformed our ability to discover and annotate cell types and states, but deep biological understanding requires more than a taxonomic listing of clusters. As new methods arise to measure distinct cellular modalities, including high-dimensional immunophenotypes, chromatin accessibility, and spatial positioning, a key analytical challenge is to integrate these datasets into a harmonized atlas that can be used to better understand cellular identity and function. Here, we develop a computational strategy to "anchor" diverse datasets together, enabling us to integrate and compare single cell measurements not only across scRNA-seq technologies, but different modalities as well. After demonstrating substantial improvement over existing methods for data integration, we anchor scRNA-seq experiments with scATAC-seq datasets to explore chromatin differences in closely related interneuron subsets, and project single cell protein measurements onto a human bone marrow atlas to annotate and characterize lymphocyte populations. Lastly, we demonstrate how anchoring can harmonize in-situ gene expression and scRNA-seq datasets, allowing for the transcriptome-wide imputation of spatial gene expression patterns, and the identification of spatial relationships between mapped cell types in the visual cortex. Our work presents a strategy for comprehensive integration of single cell data, including the assembly of harmonized references, and the transfer of information across datasets. Availability: Installation instructions, documentation, and tutorials are available at: https://www.satijalab.org/seurat

12: The Genomic Formation of South and Central Asia
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Posted to bioRxiv 31 Mar 2018

The Genomic Formation of South and Central Asia
1,401 downloads genomics

Vagheesh M Narasimhan, Nick J Patterson, Priya Moorjani, Iosif Lazaridis, Lipson Mark, Swapan Mallick, Nadin Rohland, Rebecca Bernardos, Alexander M Kim, Nathan Nakatsuka, Inigo Olalde, Alfredo Coppa, James Mallory, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Janet Monge, Luca M Olivieri, Nicole Adamski, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Francesca Candilio, Olivia Cheronet, Brendan J Culleton, Matthew Ferry, Daniel Fernandes, Beatriz Gamarra, Daniel Gaudio, Mateja Hajdinjak, Eadaoin Harney, Thomas K Harper, Denise Keating, Ann-Marie Lawson, Megan Michel, Mario Novak, Jonas Oppenheimer, Niraj Rai, Kendra Sirak, Viviane Slon, Kristin Stewardson, Zhao Zhang, Gaziz Akhatov, Anatoly N Bagashev, Baurzhan Baitanayev, Gian Luca Bonora, Tatiana Chikisheva, Anatoly Derevianko, Enshin Dmitry, Katerina Douka, Nadezhda Dubova, Andrey Epimakhov, Suzanne Freilich, Dorian Fuller, Alexander Goryachev, Andrey Gromov, Bryan Hanks, Margaret Judd, Erlan Kazizov, Aleksander Khokhlov, Egor Kitov, Elena Kupriyanova, Pavel Kuznetsov, Donata Luiselli, Farhad Maksudov, Chris Meiklejohn, Deborah C Merrett, Roberto Micheli, Oleg Mochalov, Zahir Muhammed, Samridin Mustafakulov, Ayushi Nayak, Rykun M Petrovna, Davide Pettner, Richard Potts, Dmitry Razhev, Stefania Sarno, Kulyan Sikhymbaevae, Sergey M Slepchenko, Nadezhda Stepanova, Svetlana Svyatko, Sergey Vasilyev, Massimo Vidale, Dima Voyakin, Antonina Yermolayeva, Alisa Zubova, Vasant S Shinde, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Matthias Meyer, David Anthony, Nicole Boivin, Kumarasmy Thangaraj, Douglas Kennett, Michael Frachetti, Ron Pinhasi, David Reich

The genetic formation of Central and South Asian populations has been unclear because of an absence of ancient DNA. To address this gap, we generated genome-wide data from 362 ancient individuals, including the first from eastern Iran, Turan (Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan), Bronze Age Kazakhstan, and South Asia. Our data reveal a complex set of genetic sources that ultimately combined to form the ancestry of South Asians today. We document a southward spread of genetic ancestry from the Eurasian Steppe, correlating with the archaeologically known expansion of pastoralist sites from the Steppe to Turan in the Middle Bronze Age (2300-1500 BCE). These Steppe communities mixed genetically with peoples of the Bactria Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC) whom they encountered in Turan (primarily descendants of earlier agriculturalists of Iran), but there is no evidence that the main BMAC population contributed genetically to later South Asians. Instead, Steppe communities integrated farther south throughout the 2nd millennium BCE, and we show that they mixed with a more southern population that we document at multiple sites as outlier individuals exhibiting a distinctive mixture of ancestry related to Iranian agriculturalists and South Asian hunter-gathers. We call this group Indus Periphery because they were found at sites in cultural contact with the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) and along its northern fringe, and also because they were genetically similar to post-IVC groups in the Swat Valley of Pakistan. By co-analyzing ancient DNA and genomic data from diverse present-day South Asians, we show that Indus Periphery-related people are the single most important source of ancestry in South Asia — consistent with the idea that the Indus Periphery individuals are providing us with the first direct look at the ancestry of peoples of the IVC — and we develop a model for the formation of present-day South Asians in terms of the temporally and geographically proximate sources of Indus Periphery-related, Steppe, and local South Asian hunter-gatherer-related ancestry. Our results show how ancestry from the Steppe genetically linked Europe and South Asia in the Bronze Age, and identifies the populations that almost certainly were responsible for spreading Indo-European languages across much of Eurasia.

13: Genetics of 38 blood and urine biomarkers in the UK Biobank
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Posted to bioRxiv 05 Jun 2019

Genetics of 38 blood and urine biomarkers in the UK Biobank
1,395 downloads genetics

Nicholas A Sinnott-Armstrong, Yosuke Tanigawa, David Amar, Nina J Mars, Matthew Aguirre, Guhan R. Venkataraman, Michael Wainberg, Hanna M Ollila, James P. Pirruccello, Junyang A Qian, Anna A Shcherbina, FinnGen, Fatima Rodriguez, Themistocles L Assimes, Vineeta Agarwala, Robert J Tibshirani, Trevor J Hastie, Samuli Ripatti, Jonathan K Pritchard, Mark Daly, Manuel A Rivas

Clinical laboratory tests are a critical component of the continuum of care and provide a means for rapid diagnosis and monitoring of chronic disease. In this study, we systematically evaluated the genetic basis of 38 blood and urine laboratory tests measured in 358,072 participants in the UK Biobank and identified 1,857 independent loci associated with at least one laboratory test, including 488 large-effect protein truncating, missense, and copy-number variants. We tested these loci for enrichment in specific single cell types in kidney, liver, and pancreas relevant to disease aetiology. We then causally linked the biomarkers to medically relevant phenotypes through genetic correlation and Mendelian randomization. Finally, we developed polygenic risk scores (PRS) for each biomarker and built multi-PRS models using all 38 PRSs simultaneously. We found substantially improved prediction of incidence in FinnGen (n=135,500) with the multi-PRS relative to single-disease PRSs for renal failure, myocardial infarction, liver fat percentage, and alcoholic cirrhosis. Together, our results show the genetic basis of these biomarkers, which tissues contribute to the biomarker function, the causal influences of the biomarkers, and how we can use this to predict disease.

14: RNA velocity and protein acceleration from single-cell multiomics experiments
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Posted to bioRxiv 06 Jun 2019

RNA velocity and protein acceleration from single-cell multiomics experiments
1,335 downloads bioinformatics

Gennady Gorin, Valentine Svensson, Lior Pachter

The simultaneous quantification of protein and RNA makes possible the inference of past, present and future cell states from single experimental snapshots. To enable such temporal analysis from multimodal single-cell experiments, we introduce an extension of the RNA velocity method that leverages estimates of unprocessed transcript and protein abundances to extrapolate cell states. We apply the model to four datasets and demonstrate consistency among landscapes and phase portraits.

15: Deep image reconstruction from human brain activity
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Posted to bioRxiv 28 Dec 2017

Deep image reconstruction from human brain activity
1,235 downloads neuroscience

Guohua Shen, Tomoyasu Horikawa, Kei Majima, Yukiyasu Kamitani

Machine learning-based analysis of human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) patterns has enabled the visualization of perceptual content. However, it has been limited to the reconstruction with low-level image bases or to the matching to exemplars. Recent work showed that visual cortical activity can be decoded (translated) into hierarchical features of a deep neural network (DNN) for the same input image, providing a way to make use of the information from hierarchical visual features. Here, we present a novel image reconstruction method, in which the pixel values of an image are optimized to make its DNN features similar to those decoded from human brain activity at multiple layers. We found that the generated images resembled the stimulus images (both natural images and artificial shapes) and the subjective visual content during imagery. While our model was solely trained with natural images, our method successfully generalized the reconstruction to artificial shapes, indicating that our model indeed reconstructs or generates images from brain activity, not simply matches to exemplars. A natural image prior introduced by another deep neural network effectively rendered semantically meaningful details to reconstructions by constraining reconstructed images to be similar to natural images. Furthermore, human judgment of reconstructions suggests the effectiveness of combining multiple DNN layers to enhance visual quality of generated images. The results suggest that hierarchical visual information in the brain can be effectively combined to reconstruct perceptual and subjective images.

16: The murine transcriptome reveals global aging nodes with organ-specific phase and amplitude
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Posted to bioRxiv 07 Jun 2019

The murine transcriptome reveals global aging nodes with organ-specific phase and amplitude
1,220 downloads genomics

Nicholas Schaum, Benoit Lehallier, Oliver Hahn, Shayan Hosseinzadeh, Song E Lee, Rene Sit, Davis P Lee, Patricia Morán Losada, Macy E Zardeneta, Róbert Pálovics, Tobias Fehlmann, James Webber, Aaron McGeever, Hui Zhang, Daniela Berdnik, Weilun Tan, Alexander Zee, Michelle Tan, The Tabula Muris Consortium, Angela Pisco, Jim Karkanias, Norma F. Neff, Andreas Keller, Spyros Darmanis, Stephen R. Quake, Tony Wyss-Coray

Aging is the single greatest cause of disease and death worldwide, and so understanding the associated processes could vastly improve quality of life. While the field has identified major categories of aging damage such as altered intercellular communication, loss of proteostasis, and eroded mitochondrial function, these deleterious processes interact with extraordinary complexity within and between organs. Yet, a comprehensive analysis of aging dynamics organism-wide is lacking. Here we performed RNA-sequencing of 17 organs and plasma proteomics at 10 ages across the mouse lifespan. We uncover previously unknown linear and non-linear expression shifts during aging, which cluster in strikingly consistent trajectory groups with coherent biological functions, including extracellular matrix regulation, unfolded protein binding, mitochondrial function, and inflammatory and immune response. Remarkably, these gene sets are expressed similarly across tissues, differing merely in age of onset and amplitude. Especially pronounced is widespread immune cell activation, detectable first in white adipose depots in middle age. Single-cell RNA-sequencing confirms the accumulation of adipose T and B cells, including immunoglobulin J-expressing plasma cells, which also accrue concurrently across diverse organs. Finally, we show how expression shifts in distinct tissues are highly correlated with corresponding protein levels in plasma, thus potentially contributing to aging of the systemic circulation. Together, these data demonstrate a similar yet asynchronous inter- and intra-organ progression of aging, thereby providing a foundation to track systemic sources of declining health at old age.

17: Algorithms for efficiently collapsing reads with Unique Molecular Identifiers
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Posted to bioRxiv 24 May 2019

Algorithms for efficiently collapsing reads with Unique Molecular Identifiers
1,183 downloads bioinformatics

Daniel Liu

Background Unique Molecular Identifiers (UMI) are used in many experiments to find and remove PCR duplicates. Although there are many tools for solving the problem of deduplicating reads based on their finding reads with the same alignment coordinates and UMIs, many tools either cannot handle substitution errors, or require expensive pairwise UMI comparisons that do not efficiently scale to larger datasets. Results We formulate the problem of deduplicating UMIs in a manner that enables optimizations to be made, and more efficient data structures to be used. We implement our data structures and optimizations in a tool called UMICollapse, which is able to deduplicate over one million unique UMIs of length 9 at a single alignment position in around 26 seconds. Conclusions We present a new formulation of the UMI deduplication problem, and show that it can be solved faster, with more sophisticated data structures.

18: Neanderthal-Denisovan ancestors interbred with a distantly-related hominin
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Posted to bioRxiv 02 Jun 2019

Neanderthal-Denisovan ancestors interbred with a distantly-related hominin
1,181 downloads evolutionary biology

Alan R. Rogers, Nathan S Harris, Alan A Achenbach

Previous research has shown that modern Eurasians interbred with their Neanderthal and Denisovan predecessors. We show here that hundreds of thousands of years earlier, the ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans interbred with their own Eurasian predecessors—members of a “superarchaic” population that separated from other humans about 2 mya. The superarchaic population was large, with an effective size between 20 and 50 thousand individuals. We confirm previous findings that: (1) Denisovans also interbred with superarchaics, (2) Neanderthals and Denisovans separated early in the middle Pleistocene, (3) their ancestors endured a bottleneck of population size, and (4) the Neanderthal population was large at first but then declined in size. We provide qualified support for the view that (5) Neanderthals interbred with the ancestors of modern humans. One-sentence summary We document the earliest known interbreeding between ancient human populations and an expansion out of Africa early in the middle Pleistocene.

19: Sex Chromosome Dosage Effects On Gene Expression In Humans
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Posted to bioRxiv 14 May 2017

Sex Chromosome Dosage Effects On Gene Expression In Humans
1,133 downloads genomics

Armin Raznahan, Neelroop Parikshak, Vijayendran Chandran, Jonathan Blumenthal, Liv Clasen, Aaron Alexander-Bloch, Andrew Zinn, Danny Wangsa, Jasen Wise, Declan Murphy, Patrick Bolton, Thomas Ried, Judith Ross, Jay Giedd, Daniel Geschwind

A fundamental question in the biology of sex-differences has eluded direct study in humans: how does sex chromosome dosage (SCD) shape genome function? To address this, we developed a systematic map of SCD effects on gene function by analyzing genome-wide expression data in humans with diverse sex chromosome aneuploidies (XO, XXX, XXY, XYY, XXYY). For sex chromosomes, we demonstrate a pattern of obligate dosage sensitivity amongst evolutionarily preserved X-Y homologs, and update prevailing theoretical models for SCD compensation by detecting X-linked genes whose expression increases with decreasing X- and/or Y-chromosome dosage. We further show that SCD-sensitive sex chromosome genes regulate specific co-expression networks of SCD-sensitive autosomal genes with critical cellular functions and a demonstrable potential to mediate previously documented SCD effects on disease. Our findings detail wide-ranging effects of SCD on genome function with implications for human phenotypic variation.

20: Decoding the development of the blood and immune systems during human fetal liver haematopoiesis
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Posted to bioRxiv 31 May 2019

Decoding the development of the blood and immune systems during human fetal liver haematopoiesis
1,115 downloads developmental biology

Dorin-Mirel Popescu, Rachel A. Botting, Emily Stephenson, Kile Green, Laura Jardine, Emily F Calderbank, Mirjana Efremova, Meghan Acres, Daniel Maunder, Peter Vegh, Issac Goh, Yorick Gitton, Jongeun Park, Krzysztof Polanski, Roser Vento-Tormo, Zhichao Miao, Rachel Rowell, David McDonald, James Fletcher, David Dixon, Elizabeth Poyner, Gary Reynolds, Michael Mather, Corina Moldovan, Lira Mamanova, Frankie Greig, Matthew D Young, Kerstin Meyer, Steven Lisgo, Jaume Bacardit, Andrew Fuller, Ben Millar, Barbara Innes, Susan Lindsay, Michael J.T. Stubbington, Monika D Kowalczyk, Bo D Li, Orr Ashenbrg, Marcin D Tabaka, Danielle Dionne, Timothy L. Tickle, Michal Slyper, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Andrew Filby, Alexandra-Chloe Villani, Anindita Roy, Aviv D Regev, Alain Chedotal, Irene Roberts, Berthold D Gottgens, Elisa Laurenti, Sam Behjati, Sarah D Teichmann, Muzlifah Haniffa

Definitive haematopoiesis in the fetal liver supports self-renewal and differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells/multipotent progenitors (HSC/MPPs), yet remains poorly defined in humans. Using single cell transcriptome profiling of ~133,000 fetal liver and ~65,000 fetal skin and kidney cells, we identify the repertoire of blood and immune cells in first and early second trimesters of development. From this data, we infer differentiation trajectories from HSC/MPPs, and evaluate the impact of tissue microenvironment on blood and immune cell development. We predict coupling of mast cell differentiation with erythro-megakaryopoiesis and identify physiological erythropoiesis in fetal skin. We demonstrate a shift in fetal liver haematopoietic composition during gestation away from being erythroid-predominant, accompanied by a parallel change in HSC/MPP differentiation potential, which we functionally validate. Our integrated map of fetal liver haematopoiesis provides a blueprint for the study of paediatric blood and immune disorders, and a valuable reference for understanding and harnessing the therapeutic potential of HSC/MPPs.

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